Platinum Symbol Dateiverwendung

Platin ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine hohe Dichte und ist ein kostbares, schmiedbares, dehnbares, grau-weißes Übergangsmetall. Es besitzt eine bemerkenswerte Korrosionsbeständigkeit und. File:Platinum-symbol holorgon.se ist eine vektorisierte Version dieses Bildes. Diese sollte an Stelle des Rasterbildes verwendet werden, sofern sie nicht schlechter ist. holorgon.se ‎( × Pixel, Dateigröße: 4 KB, MIME-Typ: image/png). Im Medienbetrachter öffnenKonfiguration. Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Platinum Symbol sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten. Wählen Sie aus "platinum Symbol" Stock-Fotos. Laden Sie Platinum Pt chemical element. Platinum Sign Platinum symbol on a glass square. Übertragen.

Platinum Symbol

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For more information on the Visual Elements image see the Uses and properties section below. Group A vertical column in the periodic table.

Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell. Period A horizontal row in the periodic table.

The atomic number of each element increases by one, reading from left to right. Block Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found.

These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp s , principal p , diffuse d , and fundamental f.

Atomic number The number of protons in an atom. Electron configuration The arrangements of electrons above the last closed shell noble gas.

Melting point The temperature at which the solid—liquid phase change occurs. Boiling point The temperature at which the liquid—gas phase change occurs.

Sublimation The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase.

Relative atomic mass The mass of an atom relative to that of carbon This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

Where more than one isotope exists, the value given is the abundance weighted average. Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.

CAS number The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems.

Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. This is where the artist explains his interpretation of the element and the science behind the picture.

Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially. Atomic radius, non-bonded Half of the distance between two unbonded atoms of the same element when the electrostatic forces are balanced.

These values were determined using several different methods. Covalent radius Half of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond.

Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Electron affinity The energy released when an electron is added to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed.

Electronegativity Pauling scale The tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale.

First ionisation energy The minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state. The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom.

It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic. Uncombined elements have an oxidation state of 0. The sum of the oxidation states within a compound or ion must equal the overall charge.

Data for this section been provided by the British Geological Survey. An integrated supply risk index from 1 very low risk to 10 very high risk.

This is calculated by combining the scores for crustal abundance, reserve distribution, production concentration, substitutability, recycling rate and political stability scores.

The percentage of a commodity which is recycled. A higher recycling rate may reduce risk to supply. The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity.

The percentage of an element produced in the top producing country. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply. The percentage of the world reserves located in the country with the largest reserves.

A percentile rank for the political stability of the top producing country, derived from World Bank governance indicators. A percentile rank for the political stability of the country with the largest reserves, derived from World Bank governance indicators.

Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of a kilogram of a substance by 1 K.

A measure of the stiffness of a substance. It provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain.

A measure of how difficult it is to deform a material. It is given by the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain.

A measure of how difficult it is to compress a substance. It is given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume. A measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate.

It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system. This Site has been carefully prepared for your visit, and we ask you to honour and agree to the following terms and conditions when using this Site.

Copyright of and ownership in the Images reside with Murray Robertson. The RSC has been granted the sole and exclusive right and licence to produce, publish and further license the Images.

The RSC maintains this Site for your information, education, communication, and personal entertainment.

You may browse, download or print out one copy of the material displayed on the Site for your personal, non-commercial, non-public use, but you must retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained on the materials.

You may not further copy, alter, distribute or otherwise use any of the materials from this Site without the advance, written consent of the RSC.

The images may not be posted on any website, shared in any disc library, image storage mechanism, network system or similar arrangement.

Pornographic, defamatory, libellous, scandalous, fraudulent, immoral, infringing or otherwise unlawful use of the Images is, of course, prohibited.

If you wish to use the Images in a manner not permitted by these terms and conditions please contact the Publishing Services Department by email.

If you are in any doubt, please ask. Commercial use of the Images will be charged at a rate based on the particular use, prices on application.

In such cases we would ask you to sign a Visual Elements licence agreement, tailored to the specific use you propose. The RSC makes no representations whatsoever about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this Site for any purpose.

All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without any representation or endorsement made and warranty of any kind, whether expressed or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement, compatibility, security and accuracy.

In no event shall the RSC be liable for any damages including, without limitation, indirect or consequential damages, or any damages whatsoever arising from use or loss of use, data or profits, whether in action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the material available from this Site.

Nor shall the RSC be in any event liable for any damage to your computer equipment or software which may occur on account of your access to or use of the Site, or your downloading of materials, data, text, software, or images from the Site, whether caused by a virus, bug or otherwise.

Jump to main content. Periodic Table. Glossary Allotropes Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes. Allotropes -.

Glossary Group A vertical column in the periodic table. Fact box. Glossary Image explanation Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements.

Appearance The description of the element in its natural form. Biological role The role of the element in humans, animals and plants.

Natural abundance Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially. Uses and properties. Image explanation.

The image is based on Mayan character glyphs. The Mayans used platinum in jewellery. A shiny, silvery-white metal as resistant to corrosion as gold.

Platinum is used extensively for jewellery. Its main use, however, is in catalytic converters for cars, trucks and buses. PtBiTe , antimonides PdSb , and arsenides e.

PtAs 2 , and as end alloys with nickel or copper. Platinum arsenide, sperrylite PtAs 2 , is a major source of platinum associated with nickel ores in the Sudbury Basin deposit in Ontario , Canada.

The mine ceased operations in In , chromites were identified in the Bushveld region of South Africa, followed by the discovery of platinum in In the Sudbury Basin, the huge quantities of nickel ore processed make up for the fact platinum is present as only 0.

Smaller reserves can be found in the United States, [27] for example in the Absaroka Range in Montana. Large platinum deposits are present in the state of Tamil Nadu , India.

Platinum exists in higher abundances on the Moon and in meteorites. Correspondingly, platinum is found in slightly higher abundances at sites of bolide impact on Earth that are associated with resulting post-impact volcanism, and can be mined economically; the Sudbury Basin is one such example.

Hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum compound, as it serves as the precursor for many other platinum compounds.

By itself, it has various applications in photography, zinc etchings, indelible ink , plating, mirrors, porcelain coloring, and as a catalyst. Treatment of hexachloroplatinic acid with an ammonium salt, such as ammonium chloride , gives ammonium hexachloroplatinate , [16] which is relatively insoluble in ammonium solutions.

Heating this ammonium salt in the presence of hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum. Potassium hexachloroplatinate is similarly insoluble, and hexachloroplatinic acid has been used in the determination of potassium ions by gravimetry.

When hexachloroplatinic acid is heated, it decomposes through platinum IV chloride and platinum II chloride to elemental platinum, although the reactions do not occur stepwise: [34].

All three reactions are reversible. Platinum II and platinum IV bromides are known as well. Platinum hexafluoride is a strong oxidizer capable of oxidizing oxygen.

Platinum IV oxide , PtO 2 , also known as ' Adams' catalyst ', is a black powder that is soluble in potassium hydroxide KOH solutions and concentrated acids.

Unlike palladium acetate , platinum II acetate is not commercially available. Where a base is desired, the halides have been used in conjunction with sodium acetate.

Zeise's salt , containing an ethylene ligand, was one of the first organometallic compounds discovered. Dichloro cycloocta-1,5-diene platinum II is a commercially available olefin complex, which contains easily displaceable cod ligands "cod" being an abbreviation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene.

The cod complex and the halides are convenient starting points to platinum chemistry. Cisplatin , or cis -diamminedichloroplatinum II is the first of a series of square planar platinum II -containing chemotherapy drugs.

These compounds are capable of crosslinking DNA , and kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. Archaeologists have discovered traces of platinum in the gold used in ancient Egyptian burials as early as BC.

For example, a small box from burial of Shepenupet II was found to be decorated with gold-platinum hieroglyphics.

It is quite possible they did not recognize there was platinum in their gold. The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy.

Archeologists usually associate the tradition of platinum-working in South America with the La Tolita Culture circa BC - AD , but precise dates and location is difficult, as most platinum artifacts from the area were bought secondhand through the antiquities trade rather than obtained by direct archeological excavation.

The resulting gold-platinum alloy would then be soft enough to shape with tools. It was often simply thrown away, and there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold with platinum impurities.

Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. Antonio de Ulloa returned to Spain and established the first mineralogy lab in Spain and was the first to systematically study platinum, which was in His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcinable.

Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. After publishing the report in , Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal.

In , he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica. In , Charles Wood, [53] a British metallurgist , found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation.

In , after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society , stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals.

In , Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic.

Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion. Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot aqua regia , precipitating the platinum with ammonium chloride , igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere.

Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic.

Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet platinum was the first in the list , Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron —platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold.

Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridium , amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy.

Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals.

Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron.

This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals. This led to inconsistent results in his experiments.

At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle. Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize.

This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain. Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals , is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing.

During electrorefining of copper , noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals.

If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities.

Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid.

Platinum is paramagnetic , whereas nickel and iron are both ferromagnetic. These two impurities are thus removed by running an electromagnet over the mixture.

Because platinum has a higher melting point than most other substances, many impurities can be burned or melted away without melting the platinum.

Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them. Metal impurities can be removed by stirring the mixture in either of the two acids and recovering the remaining platinum.

One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with aqua regia , in which palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted.

The gold is precipitated by the addition of iron II chloride and after filtering off the gold, the platinum is precipitated as ammonium chloroplatinate by the addition of ammonium chloride.

Ammonium chloroplatinate can be converted to platinum by heating. The remaining The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black.

It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen. Its most important application is in automobiles as a catalytic converter , which allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor.

Platinum is also used in the petroleum industry as a catalyst in a number of separate processes, but especially in catalytic reforming of straight-run naphthas into higher-octane gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds.

PtO 2 , also known as Adams' catalyst , is used as a hydrogenation catalyst, specifically for vegetable oils. From to , the meter was defined as the length of a platinum-iridium alloy bar, known as the international prototype of the meter.

The previous bar was made of platinum in Until May , the kilogram was defined as the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram , a cylinder of the same platinum-iridium alloy made in The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes.

Coins, bars, and ingots are traded or collected. It is used for this purpose for its prestige and inherent bullion value. Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches which they term patina as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products.

In watchmaking , Vacheron Constantin , Patek Philippe , Rolex , Breitling , and other companies use platinum for producing their limited edition watch series.

Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out the latter quality relative to gold.

During periods of sustained economic stability and growth, the price of platinum tends to be as much as twice the price of gold, whereas during periods of economic uncertainty, [72] the price of platinum tends to decrease due to reduced industrial demand, falling below the price of gold.

Gold prices are more stable in slow economic times, as gold is considered a safe haven. Although gold is also used in industrial applications, especially in electronics due to its use as a conductor, its demand is not so driven by industrial uses.

In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king. Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, medical instruments, dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples.

Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets. Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth.

That makes the tea parts per thousand of your mix. Another way to express that is to say that tea makes up ninety percent of the mix. Here are some important platinum facts regarding content markings:.

The FTC is currently considering a request to allow manufacturers to mark jewelry as platinum even if it contains metals that are not part of the platinum group.

Acceptable alloys that are used with platinum are grouped together. Ask your jeweler to explain platinum content and markings if you are not sure which combination is the most suitable for your jewelry purchase.

Carly Wickell. She has a special interest in vintage jewelry.

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Platinum Symbol - Region wählen

Dieses Werk darf von dir verbreitet werden — vervielfältigt, verbreitet und öffentlich zugänglich gemacht werden neu zusammengestellt werden — abgewandelt und bearbeitet werden Zu den folgenden Bedingungen: Namensnennung — Du musst angemessene Urheber- und Rechteangaben machen, einen Link zur Lizenz beifügen und angeben, ob Änderungen vorgenommen wurden. Die nachfolgenden anderen Wikis verwenden diese Datei: Verwendung auf he. Diese Datei und die Informationen unter dem roten Trennstrich werden aus dem zentralen Medienarchiv Wikimedia Commons eingebunden. Dieses Werk darf von dir verbreitet werden — vervielfältigt, verbreitet und öffentlich zugänglich gemacht werden neu zusammengestellt werden — abgewandelt und bearbeitet werden Zu den folgenden Bedingungen: Namensnennung — Du musst angemessene Urheber- und Rechteangaben machen, einen Link zur Lizenz beifügen und angeben, ob Änderungen vorgenommen wurden. Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen — Wenn du das Material wiedermischst, transformierst oder darauf aufbaust, musst du deine Beiträge unter der gleichen oder einer kompatiblen Lizenz wie das Original verbreiten. Alchemical symbol for platinum. English: Alchemical symbol for platinum. Bulk modulus GPa. Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out the latter quality relative Flash Gamez gold. An album has gone platinum, platinum wedding anniversaries, and highly prized platinum jewellery such as rings and Rolex watches. It was named Platina, a diminutive of Plata, the Spanish word for silver. Archived from the original PDF on 21 Cl Heute Abend Most often the native platinum is found in secondary deposits in alluvial deposits. PtBiTeantimonides PdSband arsenides e. D Dysprosium Dubnium Darmstadtium. Archived PDF Platinum Symbol the Partypoker Deposit Code on 8 July Views Read Edit View Osprey Quasar 30.

Platinum Symbol Video

How to test for precious metal ( platinum , palladium )

Platinum is both malleable and ductile and can be extracted from ore that contains platinum group elements PGM. These elements include iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhodium, and ruthenium.

Platinum can also be extracted from sperrylite and cooperate ores. Because of its high boiling point, and its resistance to water, air and many acids, platinum is used primarily to manufacture automotive catalytic converters, in the chemical and electrical industry and in petroleum refineries.

The price of platinum is determined by the global auto industry, air quality regulations, changes in catalytic convertor technology, the availability of substitutes, and investment demand.

Platinum Commodity. Add to watchlist Trade Now. News Mining. Historical Prices Feb. First ionisation energy The minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state.

The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom. It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic.

Uncombined elements have an oxidation state of 0. The sum of the oxidation states within a compound or ion must equal the overall charge.

Data for this section been provided by the British Geological Survey. An integrated supply risk index from 1 very low risk to 10 very high risk.

This is calculated by combining the scores for crustal abundance, reserve distribution, production concentration, substitutability, recycling rate and political stability scores.

The percentage of a commodity which is recycled. A higher recycling rate may reduce risk to supply. The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity.

The percentage of an element produced in the top producing country. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply.

The percentage of the world reserves located in the country with the largest reserves. A percentile rank for the political stability of the top producing country, derived from World Bank governance indicators.

A percentile rank for the political stability of the country with the largest reserves, derived from World Bank governance indicators.

Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of a kilogram of a substance by 1 K. A measure of the stiffness of a substance.

It provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain. A measure of how difficult it is to deform a material.

It is given by the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain. A measure of how difficult it is to compress a substance.

It is given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume. A measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate.

It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system. This Site has been carefully prepared for your visit, and we ask you to honour and agree to the following terms and conditions when using this Site.

Copyright of and ownership in the Images reside with Murray Robertson. The RSC has been granted the sole and exclusive right and licence to produce, publish and further license the Images.

The RSC maintains this Site for your information, education, communication, and personal entertainment. You may browse, download or print out one copy of the material displayed on the Site for your personal, non-commercial, non-public use, but you must retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained on the materials.

You may not further copy, alter, distribute or otherwise use any of the materials from this Site without the advance, written consent of the RSC.

The images may not be posted on any website, shared in any disc library, image storage mechanism, network system or similar arrangement.

Pornographic, defamatory, libellous, scandalous, fraudulent, immoral, infringing or otherwise unlawful use of the Images is, of course, prohibited.

If you wish to use the Images in a manner not permitted by these terms and conditions please contact the Publishing Services Department by email.

If you are in any doubt, please ask. Commercial use of the Images will be charged at a rate based on the particular use, prices on application.

In such cases we would ask you to sign a Visual Elements licence agreement, tailored to the specific use you propose. The RSC makes no representations whatsoever about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this Site for any purpose.

All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without any representation or endorsement made and warranty of any kind, whether expressed or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement, compatibility, security and accuracy.

In no event shall the RSC be liable for any damages including, without limitation, indirect or consequential damages, or any damages whatsoever arising from use or loss of use, data or profits, whether in action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the material available from this Site.

Nor shall the RSC be in any event liable for any damage to your computer equipment or software which may occur on account of your access to or use of the Site, or your downloading of materials, data, text, software, or images from the Site, whether caused by a virus, bug or otherwise.

Jump to main content. Periodic Table. Glossary Allotropes Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes.

Allotropes -. Glossary Group A vertical column in the periodic table. Fact box. Glossary Image explanation Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements.

Appearance The description of the element in its natural form. Biological role The role of the element in humans, animals and plants.

Natural abundance Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially. Uses and properties.

Image explanation. The image is based on Mayan character glyphs. The Mayans used platinum in jewellery. A shiny, silvery-white metal as resistant to corrosion as gold.

Platinum is used extensively for jewellery. Its main use, however, is in catalytic converters for cars, trucks and buses.

Platinum is used in the chemicals industry as a catalyst for the production of nitric acid, silicone and benzene.

It is also used as a catalyst to improve the efficiency of fuel cells. Platinum is also used to make optical fibres and LCDs, turbine blades, spark plugs, pacemakers and dental fillings.

Biological role. Platinum has no known biological role. It is non-toxic. Natural abundance. Platinum is found uncombined in alluvial deposits.

Most commercially produced platinum comes from South Africa, from the mineral cooperite platinum sulfide. Some platinum is prepared as a by-product of copper and nickel refining.

Help text not available for this section currently. Elements and Periodic Table History. Probably the oldest worked specimen of platinum is that from an ancient Egyptian casket of the 7 th century BC, unearthed at Thebes and dedicated to Queen Shapenapit.

Otherwise this metal was unknown in Europe and Asia for the next two millennia, although on the Pacific coast of South America, there were people able to work platinum, as shown by burial goods dating back years.

In an Italian scholar, Julius Scaliger, wrote of a metal from Spanish Central America that could not be made to melt and was no doubt platinum.

Then, in , Antonio Ulloa encountered this curious metal, but as he returned to Europe his ship was captured by the Royal Navy and he ended up in London.

There, members of the Royal Society were most interested to hear about the new metal, and by the s, platinum was being reported and discussed throughout Europe.

Atomic data. Glossary Common oxidation states The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom.

Oxidation states and isotopes. Glossary Data for this section been provided by the British Geological Survey. Relative supply risk An integrated supply risk index from 1 very low risk to 10 very high risk.

Recycling rate The percentage of a commodity which is recycled. Substitutability The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity.

Reserve distribution The percentage of the world reserves located in the country with the largest reserves.

Political stability of top producer A percentile rank for the political stability of the top producing country, derived from World Bank governance indicators.

Political stability of top reserve holder A percentile rank for the political stability of the country with the largest reserves, derived from World Bank governance indicators.

Supply risk. Relative supply risk 7. Young's modulus A measure of the stiffness of a substance. Shear modulus A measure of how difficult it is to deform a material.

Bulk modulus A measure of how difficult it is to compress a substance. Vapour pressure A measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate.

Pressure and temperature data — advanced. Listen to Platinum Podcast Transcript :. You're listening to Chemistry in its element brought to you by Chemistry World , the magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

Hello - blonde hair, expensive jewellery, a new generation of catalysts and anti cancer drugs plus a mistake that cost the Spanish conquistadors very dear.

Have you spotted the connection yet? If not, here's Katherine Haxton. Platinum as a metal speaks of prestige, value and power. An album has gone platinum, platinum wedding anniversaries, and highly prized platinum jewellery such as rings and Rolex watches.

Platinum is a very different substance to a chemist. Platinum metal is silvery white and does not oxidise, properties that make it highly appealing for jewellery.

It is more precious than silver but with prices more volatile than gold. Platinum has broad chemical resistance although the metal may be dissolved in aqua regia, a highly acidic mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, forming chloroplatinic acid, and has an extremely high melting point in excess of two thousand degrees centigrade.

Spanish conquistadors in the 16 th century viewed platinum as a nuisance, a white metal obtained while panning for gold and difficult to separate from the gold.

It was named Platina, a diminutive of Plata, the Spanish word for silver. Platina was believed to be unripe gold, and was flung back into the rivers in the hope that it would continue to mature into gold.

There is anecdotal evidence of gold mines being abandoned due to platinum contamination. Platinum's properties allowed it to defy identification and classification until the 18 th century.

Its high melting point and broad chemical resistance meant that obtaining a pure sample of the metal was difficult. Platinum's place as a precious metal was first established in the 18 th century by Henrik Sheffer, who succeeded in melting or fusing platinum by adding arsenic.

Three chemists, Lavoisier, Seguin and Musnier began working together in the late 18 th century to improve the design of their furnaces to enable platinum to be melted without the need of fluxes such as arsenic.

The French Chemist Lavoisier wrote for help from Josiah Wedgewood, the founder of Wedgewood pottery, asking for a clay that could be used to manufacture vessels that could withstand the high temperatures needed to melt platinum.

Seguin later requested details of which fuel could burn sufficiently hot enough, and for further details on creating the hottest flame possible.

Lavoisier succeeded in melting platinum using oxygen to enhance the heat of the furnace but it would still be many years before a process could be found to produce commercial quantities.

Of course, that was prior to Lavoisier's beheading at the height of the French Revolution in Janety had managed to develop a means of producing workable platinum using arsenic, and a way to remove the arsenic afterwards with limited success.

It is ironic that the very properties that make platinum metal so desirable caused so many difficulties for its discoverers. King Louis XVI of France believed that platinum metal was only fit for Kings, due in part to the difficulties in working with pure samples.

In , a method for melting up to 15 kilograms of platinum using a furnace lined with lime and oxygen and coal gas as fuel was described by Deville and Debray.

The 19th century also saw the development of the first fuel cell using platinum electrodes. Fuel cells produce electricity through electrochemical reactions, often using platinum as non-reactive electrodes, and represent an important area of research into environmentally friendly technologies and cleaner, greener sources of energy today.

The very properties of platinum that had made it so hard to work with became valued and platinum was used for lab equipment, and other applications where its broad chemical resistance was required.

Johnson Matthey perfected the techniques of separating and refining the platinum group metals and in Matthey produced a standard metre measure made of a platinum and iridium alloy.

Platinum compounds have been well documented, perhaps none more so than cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II , cisplatin. In the early s, Barnett Rosenberg was conducting experiments on bacteria, measuring the effects of electrical currents on cell growth.

It was observed that the E.

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