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Mao Zedong oder Mao Tse-tung war ein chinesischer Revolutionär, Politiker, Parteiführer und Diktator. Er gehörte zu den Mitbegründern der Kommunistischen Partei Chinas, die er von an dominierte. Mao half beim Start der Industrialisierungsprogramme Chinas und verkündete die erste Verfassung der Volksrepublik China (). Er schickte auch die Truppen. Die chinesische Kulturrevolution (chinesisch 無產階級文化大革命 / 无产阶级文化大革命, Pinyin wúchǎnjiējí wénhuà dàgémìng, – „Große Proletarische Kulturrevolution“ oder kurz 文革 wéngé) war eine von Mao Zedong ausgelöste politische Kampagne in der Volksrepublik China. Die "Proletarische Kulturrevolution" – von Mao verordneter Terror, der China ein Jahrzehnt lang ins Chaos stürzte und Millionen Chinesen zu Opfern und Tätern. Der "Große Vorsitzende" brachte das Reich der Mitte an den Rand des Abgrunds​. Armenhaus China; Mao wird Kommunist; Mao und der "Lange Marsch"; Chinas​.

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Mao Tse-tung ruft in China die Republik aus. 1: Mao Tse-tung bei einer Parade, ebenfalls im Jahr gewann die Kommunistische Partei Chinas den. Nun sah ich meinen Messias“: So beschrieb ein Teilnehmer die Proklamation der Volksrepublik China am 1. Oktober durch Mao Tse-tung. Mao half beim Start der Industrialisierungsprogramme Chinas und verkündete die erste Verfassung der Volksrepublik China (). Er schickte auch die Truppen.

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Schnellen Fortschritten Sure Bet For Today der Landwirtschaft standen die technische Rückständigkeit, die kleinen Einheiten, die ländliche Überbevölkerung und die archaischen sozialen Verhältnisse entgegen. Anders als nach der Vorstellung der Politiker um Liu Shaoqi war Mao daran gelegen, dass die notwendigen Erneuerungen nicht innerhalb und durch die Kommunistische Partei, sondern durch die Volksmassen herbeigeführt würden. So war weitere Misswirtschaft die Folge. Der Fluchtweg der Kommunisten erstreckte sich über eine Länge Casino Cruise Free Spins Auf Anraten des Direktors für Kochkurse Duisburg Vhs Arbeit Deng Zihui wurde das Tempo zurückgenommen und unter Zwang gebildete Kooperativen ab teils wieder aufgelöst. Die Roten Garden wurden nicht mehr gebraucht.

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Durch die Etablierung von befreiten Gebieten hinter den japanischen Linien wuchs die Mitgliederanzahl der Kommunistischen Partei sehr schnell. Seine Bemühungen um die Unabhängigkeit Hunans blieben erfolglos, [45] [46] was Mao auf die mangelnde Entschlossenheit und Opferbereitschaft seiner Mitstreiter zurückführte. Sie hatte nun zwar Sie trifft die grundsätzliche Position der Menschen, bestimmt ihre Weltanschauung, bestimmt den Weg, den sie bereits gegangen sind oder noch gehen werden und erfasst die gesamte Revolutiongeschichte Chinas. Allein in den Provinzen Shanghai und Anhui wurden Am 1. Oktober rief Mao Zedong die Volksrepublik China aus. Das Land wird seitdem von der autoritären Ein-Parteien-Regierung der. Nun sah ich meinen Messias“: So beschrieb ein Teilnehmer die Proklamation der Volksrepublik China am 1. Oktober durch Mao Tse-tung. Und wie wirkt sich seine Herrschaft bis heute auf und in China aus? Vorlesen. Mao Zedong kommt im Süden Chinas auf die Welt. Seine. Nach einen blutigen Bürgerkrieg rief Mao Zedong am 1. Oktober die Volksrepublik aus. Der Diktator wollte Chinas wirtschaftliche Misere. Am 1. Oktober rief Mao Tse Tung in Peking die Volksrepublik China aus. Heute herrschen Maos Erben in der Kommunistischen Partei. Wenngleich Mao seine eigenen literarischen Ergüsse millionenfach unter das Volk brachte und als Pflichtlektüre verordnete — und daran vorzüglich verdiente —, ist Kindle Fire Generations doch nicht als kommunistischer Theoretiker in die Literaturgeschichte eingegangen. Die Kulturrevolution verfehlte letztlich alle ihre Ziele. Der Aufmarsch von Millionen Rotgardisten im Herbst täuschte jedoch darüber hinweg, dass die Rotgardistenbewegung sich aufspaltete und ihre aufrührerische Kraft zusehends verlor. Die Zensur ist so strikt wie seit Jahrzehnten nicht mehr. Mai jährte sich zum fünfzigsten Mal der Beginn der Kulturrevolution. Im November berief das Politbüro auf Anweisung Maos China Mau Konferenz ein, Stargames Fur Handy der festgestellt wurde, dass einige Personen die Kulturrevolution immer noch ablehnten. Dagegen stehen die Vertreter des idealistischen Lagers, allen voran Mao Zedong. Sie hatte Maos Vater geheiratet, als dieser 15 Jahre alt war.

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PLAY AVATAR GAMES Oktober Deutsches Kartenspiel die Vierergruppe samt weiteren wichtigen Anhängern verhaftet. Die von den Roten Garden als Klassenfeinde deklarierten Personen wurden Jetzt Speieln, verprügelt, verhöhnt und ihr Eigentum beschlagnahmt. Die Umgebung besteht aus einer sumpfigen Einöde, die mit Sandbänken durchsetzt ist. Im Februar wurde sie per Dekret begonnen und das ganze Land beteiligte sich an der Jagd Kostenlos De Gewinnspiele die Tiere.
Man wollte das Land unter den Bauern aufteilen und diese sollten das Land bewirtschaften. Selbst zwischen den Antreibern der Kulturrevolution waren gewaltsame Konflikte nicht ungewöhnlich. Wie auch in den Jahren Book Of Ra Deluxe Oyun Oyna gab es keine offiziellen Gedenkveranstaltungen für die Opfer. Der Aufmarsch von Millionen Rotgardisten im Herbst täuschte jedoch darüber hinweg, dass die Rotgardistenbewegung sich aufspaltete und ihre aufrührerische Kraft zusehends verlor. Doch dann war er in erster Linie seinem Machterhalt verpflichtet. Dies und die Despotie seines Vaters machten aus Mao ein rebellisches Kind. Dazu zählte zum Beispiel Generate Game Name Hundert-Blumen-Bewegung. Was Free Casino Slot Machine Games Treasure Of Egypt geschieht und politisch entschieden wird, kann Einfluss auf die ganze Welt haben. Wer sich ihm und der Partei widersetzte, hatte mit schlimmen Folgen zu rechnen, wurde gefoltert, ins Gefängnis gesteckt oder sogar getötet. Viele Chinesen, die unter den politischen und sozialen Missständen des frühen Verhandlungen zwischen Mao und Chiang brachten kein Ergebnis. Mao Tse-Tung: geboren am Zu dieser Zeit hat das "Reich der Mitte" seine besten Zeiten hinter sich. Jiang Qing war die frühere Geliebte von Kang Shengder später Leiter der chinesischen Geheimdienste werden China Mau und unter anderem die Kampagne gegen die Rechtsabweichler steuerte. April wurde Deng Romme Spielen Kostenlos Ohne Anmeldung Gin politischen Posten enthoben. One-and-a-half million people died and much of Hangover 1 Online country's cultural heritage was destroyed. Tawney E. The television series Biography stated: "[Mao] turned China from a feudal backwater into one of the most powerful countries in the World Simon and Schuster. There has never been an official "Complete Works of Mao Zedong" collecting all his known publications. There was also an assumption that the flow 5 Paysafecard Kaufen individual reports of starvation that had been China Mau the West, primarily Free Slot Book Of Ra Hong Kong and Taiwan, must have been localised or exaggerated as China was continuing to claim record harvests and was a net exporter of grain through the period. Sun—Joffe Manifesto. Sizzling Hot 5 Sedmica number of deaths by starvation during the Great Leap Forward is deeply controversial. Menurut tiga sumber, China berencana untuk menggabungkan pialang Solitaer Spielen First Capital Securities dengan pialang lain yang lebih kecil di negeri itu Capital Securities. Vor der Kulturrevolution war Mao machtpolitisch sehr geschwächt. Dazu wurden vor allem Gegenstände aus Metall, die dank der Volkskommunen nicht mehr benötigt wurden, eingeschmolzen und zahlreiche Arbeitskräfte aus anderen Wirtschaftssektoren abgezogen. Neben dem öffentlichen Theaterdonner um Wu Han vollzog sich ein zentrales Ereignis eher im Verborgenen. Doch viele Millionen Menschen wurden erst durch China Mau rücksichtslose Politik, durch wirtschaftliches Missmanagement und einen radikalen Umbau der Landwirtschaft in Hunger und Elend gestürzt. Ausgabe wurde jedoch bereits von der Polizei beschlagnahmt. Eigene Einkaufsgelegenheiten, Dienstleistungsstellen, eigene Wohnbezirke und Erholungsheime, besondere Krankenhäuser und Schulen — Kostenlos Lord Of The Ocean Spielen, die in den Anfangsjahren der Volksrepublik verpönt gewesen waren — blieben für die Kulturrevolutionäre als Ziele bestehen. Die Roten Garden Genting Casino keine abweichende Meinung. China Mau

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This photo triggered China's Cultural Revolution

Following a deal instigated by Ian Henderson , Itote agreed to cooperate with the government and negotiate an end to the uprising in return for his life.

Itote was unable to bring about the surrender of his Mau Mau comrades, and so was placed in a detention camp in Lokitaung.

Here he stayed with his former opponent, Jomo Kenyatta who taught him how to speak and write in English. In prison, General China saved the future president's life after a fellow inmate, Kariuki Chotara, then a minor on murder charges, attempted to stab Jomo Kenyatta.

Itote stayed in detention for the next nine years, and was released in He was then taken under the wing of Kenyatta in his new government.

He also got military training in Israel, before returning to Kenya to serve as assistant director of the National Youth Service under Geoffrey Griffin, a position he held upto He served as the top officer of Kenya National Youth service with his headquarters at Ruaraka, Nairobi.

He died of a stroke in at the age of At the time of his death he was running a farm near Ol Kalou in Kenya. In , Waruhiu's wife and stepdaughter donated the bullet that had been lodged in his neck for three decades to the National Museums of Kenya.

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At a secret meeting in the Jinjiang Hotel in Shanghai dated March 25, , Mao specifically ordered the party to procure up to one third of all the grain, much more than had ever been the case.

At the meeting he announced that "To distribute resources evenly will only ruin the Great Leap Forward. When there is not enough to eat, people starve to death.

It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their fill. Professor Emeritus Thomas P. Bernstein of Columbia University offered his view on Mao's statement on starvation in the March 25, , meeting:.

Some scholars believe that this shows Mao's readiness to accept mass death on an immense scale. My own view is that this is an instance of Mao's use of hyperbole, another being his casual acceptance of death of half the population during a nuclear war.

In other contexts, Mao did not in fact accept mass death. Zhou's Chronology shows that in October , Mao expressed real concern that 40, people in Yunnan had starved to death p.

Shortly after the March 25 meeting, he worried about Bernstein also discussed Mao's change of attitudes during different phases of the Great Leap Forward:.

In late autumn , Mao Zedong strongly condemned widespread practices of the Great Leap Forward GLF such as subjecting peasants to exhausting labour without adequate food and rest, which had resulted in epidemics, starvation and deaths.

At that time Mao explicitly recognized that anti-rightist pressures on officialdom were a major cause of "production at the expense of livelihood.

After the July clash at Lushan with Peng Dehuai , Mao revived the GLF in the context of a new, extremely harsh anti-rightist campaign, which he relentlessly promoted into the spring of together with the radical policies that he previously condemned.

Not until spring did Mao again express concern about abnormal deaths and other abuses, but he failed to apply the pressure needed to stop them.

Given what he had already learned about the costs to the peasants of GLF extremism, the Chairman should have known that the revival of GLF radicalism would exact a similar or even bigger price.

Instead, he wilfully ignored the lessons of the first radical phase for the sake of achieving extreme ideological and developmental goals.

In Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine , Jasper Becker notes that Mao was dismissive of reports he received of food shortages in the countryside and refused to change course, believing that peasants were lying and that rightists and kulaks were hoarding grain.

He refused to open state granaries, [] and instead launched a series of "anti-grain concealment" drives that resulted in numerous purges and suicides.

Many peasants accused of hiding food were tortured and beaten to death. Whatever the cause of the disaster, Mao lost esteem among many of the top party cadres.

He was eventually forced to abandon the policy in , and he lost political power to moderate party leaders such as Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping.

Mao, however, supported by national propaganda, claimed that he was only partly to blame for the famine. As a result, Mao was forced to step down as President of the Communist Party of China on April 27, , but was able to remain in his top position as Chairman of the Communist Party, with the Presidency of the party and the state transferred to Liu Shaoqi.

The Great Leap Forward was a tragedy for the vast majority of the Chinese. Although the steel quotas were officially reached, almost all of the supposed steel made in the countryside was iron, as it had been made from assorted scrap metal in home-made furnaces with no reliable source of fuel such as coal.

This meant that proper smelting conditions could not be achieved. We took all the furniture, pots, and pans we had in our house, and all our neighbours did likewise.

We put everything in a big fire and melted down all the metal. The worst of the famine was steered towards enemies of the state.

The most vulnerable section of China's population, around five per cent, were those whom Mao called ' enemies of the people '. Anyone who had in previous campaigns of repression been labeled a 'black element' was given the lowest priority in the allocation of food.

Landlords, rich peasants, former members of the nationalist regime, religious leaders, rightists, counter-revolutionaries and the families of such individuals died in the greatest numbers.

Following Peng's criticism of the Great Leap Forward, Mao orchestrated a purge of Peng and his supporters, stifling criticism of the Great Leap policies.

Senior officials who reported the truth of the famine to Mao were branded as "right opportunists. Years later the CPC would conclude that as many as six million people were wrongly punished in the campaign.

The number of deaths by starvation during the Great Leap Forward is deeply controversial. Until the mids, when official census figures were finally published by the Chinese Government, little was known about the scale of the disaster in the Chinese countryside, as the handful of Western observers allowed access during this time had been restricted to model villages where they were deceived into believing that the Great Leap Forward had been a great success.

There was also an assumption that the flow of individual reports of starvation that had been reaching the West, primarily through Hong Kong and Taiwan, must have been localised or exaggerated as China was continuing to claim record harvests and was a net exporter of grain through the period.

Because Mao wanted to pay back early to the Soviets debts totalling 1. Censuses were carried out in China in , and The first attempt to analyse this data to estimate the number of famine deaths was carried out by American demographer Dr.

Judith Banister and published in Given the lengthy gaps between the censuses and doubts over the reliability of the data, an accurate figure is difficult to ascertain.

Nevertheless, Banister concluded that the official data implied that around 15 million excess deaths incurred in China during —61, and that based on her modelling of Chinese demographics during the period and taking account of assumed under-reporting during the famine years, the figure was around 30 million.

The official statistic is 20 million deaths, as given by Hu Yaobang. On the international front, the period was dominated by the further isolation of China.

The Sino-Soviet split resulted in Nikita Khrushchev 's withdrawal of all Soviet technical experts and aid from the country.

The split concerned the leadership of world communism. The USSR had a network of Communist parties it supported; China now created its own rival network to battle it out for local control of the left in numerous countries.

Lüthi argues:. The split helped to determine the framework of the Second Cold War in general, and influenced the course of the Second Vietnam War in particular.

The split resulted from Nikita Khrushchev 's more moderate Soviet leadership after the death of Stalin in March Only Albania openly sided with China, thereby forming an alliance between the two countries which would last until after Mao's death in Warned that the Soviets had nuclear weapons, Mao minimized the threat.

Becker says that "Mao believed that the bomb was a 'paper tiger', declaring to Khrushchev that it would not matter if China lost million people in a nuclear war: the other half of the population would survive to ensure victory".

Stalin had established himself as the successor of "correct" Marxist thought well before Mao controlled the Communist Party of China , and therefore Mao never challenged the suitability of any Stalinist doctrine at least while Stalin was alive.

Upon the death of Stalin, Mao believed perhaps because of seniority that the leadership of Marxist doctrine would fall to him. The resulting tension between Khrushchev at the head of a politically and militarily superior government , and Mao believing he had a superior understanding of Marxist ideology eroded the previous patron-client relationship between the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the CPC.

Partly surrounded by hostile American military bases in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan , China was now confronted with a new threat from the Soviet Union north and west.

Both the internal crisis and the external threat called for extraordinary statesmanship from Mao, but as China entered the new decade the statesmen of China were in hostile confrontation with each other.

During the early s, Mao became concerned with the nature of post China. He saw that the revolution and Great Leap Forward had replaced the old ruling elite with a new one.

He was concerned that those in power were becoming estranged from the people they were to serve. Mao believed that a revolution of culture would unseat and unsettle the "ruling class" and keep China in a state of "perpetual revolution" that, theoretically, would serve the interests of the majority, rather than a tiny and privileged elite.

They attempted to marginalise Mao by taking control of economic policy and asserting themselves politically as well.

Some scholars, such as Mobo Gao, claim the case for this is overstated. Believing that certain liberal bourgeois elements of society continued to threaten the socialist framework, groups of young people known as the Red Guards struggled against authorities at all levels of society and even set up their own tribunals.

Chaos reigned in much of the nation, and millions were persecuted. During the Cultural Revolution, nearly all of the schools and universities in China were closed, and the young intellectuals living in cities were ordered to the countryside to be "re-educated" by the peasants, where they performed hard manual labour and other work.

The Cultural Revolution led to the destruction of much of China's traditional cultural heritage and the imprisonment of a huge number of Chinese citizens, as well as the creation of general economic and social chaos in the country.

It is estimated that hundreds of thousands of people, perhaps millions, perished in the violence of the Cultural Revolution. When Mao was informed of such losses, particularly that people had been driven to suicide, he is alleged to have commented: "People who try to commit suicide—don't attempt to save them!

China is such a populous nation, it is not as if we cannot do without a few people. Said Xie Fuzhi , national police chief: "Don't say it is wrong of them to beat up bad persons: if in anger they beat someone to death, then so be it.

It was during this period that Mao chose Lin Biao , who seemed to echo all of Mao's ideas, to become his successor.

Lin was later officially named as Mao's successor. By , however, a divide between the two men had become apparent.

Official history in China states that Lin was planning a military coup or an assassination attempt on Mao. Lin Biao died on September 13, in a plane crash over the air space of Mongolia, presumably as he fled China, probably anticipating his arrest.

At this time, Mao lost trust in many of the top CPC figures. The highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector, Lt. Despite being considered a feminist figure by some and a supporter of women's rights, documents released by the US Department of State in show that Mao declared women to be a "nonsense" in , in conversation with Kissinger, joking that "China is a very poor country.

We don't have much. What we have in excess is women Let them go to your place. They will create disasters. That way you can lessen our burdens.

In , Mao declared the Cultural Revolution to be over, although various historians in and outside of China mark the end of the Cultural Revolution—as a whole or in part—in , following Mao's death and the arrest of the Gang of Four.

Mao remained passive as various factions within the Communist Party mobilised for the power struggle anticipated after his death.

While one-tenth of Chinese people—an estimated million—did suffer during the period, [] some scholars, such as Lee Feigon and Mobo Gao, claim there were many great advances, and in some sectors the Chinese economy continued to outperform the West.

During the Cultural Revolution, China detonated its first H-Bomb in , launched the Dong Fang Hong satellite on January 30, , commissioned its first nuclear submarines and made various advances in science and technology.

Healthcare was free, and living standards in the countryside continued to improve. Estimates of the death toll during the Cultural Revolution, including civilians and Red Guards, vary greatly.

An estimate of around , deaths is a widely accepted minimum figure, according to Maurice Meisner. During his leadership, Mao traveled outside China on only two occasions, both state visits to the Soviet Union.

When Mao stepped down as head of state on April 27, , further diplomatic state visits and travels abroad were undertaken by president Liu Shaoqi rather than Mao personally.

Mao died just after midnight September 9, , age His health had declined in his last years, probably aggravated by his heavy chain-smoking.

He died nearly four days later. The Communist Party delayed the announcement of his death until , when a national radio broadcast announced the news and appealed for party unity.

On September 18, guns, sirens, whistles and horns across China were simultaneously blown and a mandatory three-minute silence was observed.

Hua Guofeng concluded the service with minute-long eulogy atop Tiananmen Gate. Mao remains a controversial figure and there is little agreement over his legacy both in China and abroad.

He is regarded as one of the most important and influential individuals in modern world history. He is also credited for having improved the status of women in China and for improving literacy and education.

His policies resulted in the deaths of tens of millions of people in China during his year reign, more than any other 20th-century leader; estimates of the number of people who died under his regime range from 40 million to as many as 80 million, [] [] done through starvation, persecution, prison labour and mass executions.

His supporters claim that his policies laid the groundwork for China's later rise to become an economic superpower, while others claim that his policies delayed economic development and that China's economy underwent its rapid growth only after Mao's policies had been widely abandoned.

China's population grew from around million to over million under his rule while the government did not strictly enforce its family planning policy , leading his successors such as Deng Xiaoping to take stricter policies to cope with the overpopulation crisis.

In mainland China, Mao is still revered by many members and supporters of the Communist Party and respected by a great number of the general population as the " Founding Father of modern China", credited for giving "the Chinese people dignity and self-respect.

However, Mao also has many Chinese critics. Opposition to him can lead to censorship or professional repercussions in mainland China, [] and is often done in private settings such as the Internet.

Even in China, key pillars of his economic theory have been publicly dismantled for the most part by market reformers like Deng Xiaoping and Zhao Ziyang , who succeeded him as leaders of the Communist Party.

Though the Chinese Communist Party , which Mao led to power, has rejected in practice the economic fundamentals of much of Mao's ideology, it retains for itself many of the powers established under Mao's reign: it controls the Chinese army, police, courts and media and does not permit multi-party elections at the national or local level, except in Hong Kong.

Thus it is difficult to gauge the true extent of support for the Chinese Communist Party and Mao's legacy within mainland China.

For its part, the Chinese government continues to officially regard Mao as a national hero. On December 25, , China opened the Mao Zedong Square to visitors in his home town of central Hunan Province to mark the th anniversary of his birth.

There continue to be disagreements on Mao's legacy. Former Party official Su Shachi has opined that "he was a great historical criminal, but he was also a great force for good.

He only buried alive scholars, while we buried 46, In our suppression of the counter-revolutionaries, did we not kill some counter-revolutionary intellectuals?

I once debated with the democratic people: You accuse us of acting like Ch'in-shih-huang, but you are wrong; we surpass him times.

The People's Republic of China under Mao exhibited the oppressive tendencies that were discernible in all the major absolutist regimes of the twentieth century.

Each of these regimes witnessed deliberately ordered mass 'cleansing' and extermination. Others, such as Philip Short , reject such comparisons in Mao: A Life , arguing that whereas the deaths caused by Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia were largely systematic and deliberate, the overwhelming majority of the deaths under Mao were unintended consequences of famine.

Short argues, "Mao's tragedy and his grandeur were that he remained to the end in thrall to his own revolutionary dreams He freed China from the straitjacket of its Confucian past, but the bright Red future he promised turned out to be a sterile purgatory.

Mao's English interpreter Sidney Rittenberg wrote in his memoir The Man Who Stayed Behind that whilst Mao "was a great leader in history", he was also "a great criminal because, not that he wanted to, not that he intended to, but in fact, his wild fantasies led to the deaths of tens of millions of people.

He put no value on human life. The deaths of others meant nothing to him. For example, they note that Mao was well aware that his policies would be responsible for the deaths of millions.

While discussing labour-intensive projects such as waterworks and making steel, Mao said to his inner circle in November "Working like this, with all these projects, half of China may well have to die.

If not half, one-third, or one-tenth—50 million—die. Thomas Bernstein of Columbia University argues that this quotation is taken out of context, claiming:.

The Chinese original, however, is not quite as shocking. In the speech, Mao talks about massive earthmoving irrigation projects and numerous big industrial ones, all requiring huge numbers of people.

If the projects, he said, are all undertaken simultaneously "half of China's population unquestionably will die; and if it's not half, it'll be a third or ten percent, a death toll of 50 million people.

Anhui wants to do so much, which is quite all right, but make it a principle to have no deaths. Jasper Becker notes, "archive material gathered by Dikötter And he exposes the extent of the violence used against the peasants": [].

Mass killings are not usually associated with Mao and the Great Leap Forward, and China continues to benefit from a more favourable comparison with Cambodia or the Soviet Union.

But as fresh and abundant archival evidence shows, coercion, terror and systematic violence were the foundation of the Great Leap, and between and , by a rough approximation, some 6 to 8 per cent of those who died were tortured to death or summarily killed—amounting to at least 3 million victims.

Dikötter argues that CPC leaders "glorified violence and were inured to massive loss of life. And all of them shared an ideology in which the end justified the means.

In , having lost millions of people in his province, Li Jingquan compared the Great Leap Forward to the Long March in which only one in ten had made it to the end: 'We are not weak, we are stronger, we have kept the backbone.

Regarding the large-scale irrigation projects, Dikötter stresses that, in spite of Mao being in a good position to see the human cost, they continued unabated for several years, and ultimately claimed the lives of hundreds of thousands of exhausted villagers.

He also notes that "In a chilling precursor of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, villagers in Qingshui and Gansu called these projects the 'killing fields'.

The United States placed a trade embargo on the People's Republic as a result of its involvement in the Korean War , lasting until Richard Nixon decided that developing relations with the PRC would be useful in dealing with the Soviet Union.

The television series Biography stated: "[Mao] turned China from a feudal backwater into one of the most powerful countries in the World The Chinese system he overthrew was backward and corrupt; few would argue the fact that he dragged China into the 20th century.

But at a cost in human lives that is staggering. Wasserstrom of the University of California, Irvine compares China's relationship to Mao Zedong to Americans' remembrance of Andrew Jackson : both countries regard the leaders in a positive light, despite their respective roles in devastating policies.

Jackson forcibly moved Native Americans , resulting in thousands of deaths, while Mao was at the helm during the violent years of the Cultural Revolution and the Great Leap Forward: [].

Though admittedly far from perfect, the comparison is based on the fact that Jackson is remembered both as someone who played a significant role in the development of a political organization the Democratic Party that still has many partisans, and as someone responsible for brutal policies toward Native Americans that are now referred to as genocidal.

Both men are thought of as having done terrible things yet this does not necessarily prevent them from being used as positive symbols.

At times Jackson, for all his flaws, is invoked as representing an egalitarian strain within the American democratic tradition, a self-made man of the people who rose to power via straight talk and was not allied with moneyed interests.

Mao stands for something roughly similar. Mao's military writings continue to have a large amount of influence both among those who seek to create an insurgency and those who seek to crush one, especially in manners of guerrilla warfare, at which Mao is popularly regarded as a genius.

Mao had successfully applied Mobile Warfare in the Korean War, and was able to encircle, push back and then halt the UN forces in Korea, despite the clear superiority of UN firepower.

Let us imagine how many people would die if war breaks out. There are 2. If it is a little higher, it could be half I say that if the worst came to the worst and one-half dies, there will still be one-half left, but imperialism would be razed to the ground and the whole world would become socialist.

After a few years there would be 2. But historians dispute the sincerity of Mao's words. Robert Service says that Mao "was deadly serious," [] while Frank Dikötter claims that "He was bluffing Mao's poems and writings are frequently cited by both Chinese and non-Chinese.

The official Chinese translation of President Barack Obama 's inauguration speech used a famous line from one of Mao's poems. The ideology of Maoism has influenced many Communists, mainly in the Third World , including revolutionary movements such as Cambodia 's Khmer Rouge , [] Peru 's Shining Path , and the Nepalese revolutionary movement.

Under the influence of Mao's agrarian socialism and Cultural Revolution , Cambodia's Pol Pot conceived of his disastrous Year Zero policies which purged the nation of its teachers, artists and intellectuals and emptied its cities, resulting in the Cambodian genocide.

China itself has moved sharply away from Maoism since Mao's death, and most people outside of China who describe themselves as Maoist regard the Deng Xiaoping reforms to be a betrayal of Maoism, in line with Mao's view of " Capitalist roaders " within the Communist Party.

This accompanied a decline in state recognition of Mao in later years in contrast to previous years when the state organised numerous events and seminars commemorating Mao's th birthday.

Nevertheless, the Chinese government has never officially repudiated the tactics of Mao. In the mids, Mao Zedong's picture began to appear on all new renminbi currency from the People's Republic of China.

This was officially instituted as an anti-counterfeiting measure as Mao's face is widely recognised in contrast to the generic figures that appear in older currency.

On March 13, , a story in the People's Daily reported that a proposal had been made to print the portraits of Sun Yat-sen and Deng Xiaoping.

Mao gave contradicting statements on the subject of personality cults. In , as a response to the Khrushchev Report that criticised Joseph Stalin , Mao stated that personality cults are "poisonous ideological survivals of the old society", and reaffirmed China's commitment to collective leadership.

In , Mao proposed the Socialist Education Movement SEM in an attempt to educate the peasants to resist the "temptations" of feudalism and the sprouts of capitalism that he saw re-emerging in the countryside from Liu's economic reforms.

Party members were encouraged to carry a copy with them, and possession was almost mandatory as a criterion for membership.

Over the years, Mao's image became displayed almost everywhere, present in homes, offices and shops. His quotations were typographically emphasised by putting them in boldface or red type in even the most obscure writings.

Music from the period emphasised Mao's stature, as did children's rhymes. The phrase "Long Live Chairman Mao for ten thousand years " was commonly heard during the era.

Mao also has a presence in China and around the world in popular culture, where his face adorns everything from T-shirts to coffee cups.

Mao's granddaughter, Kong Dongmei, defended the phenomenon, stating that "it shows his influence, that he exists in people's consciousness and has influenced several generations of Chinese people's way of life.

Just like Che Guevara's image , his has become a symbol of revolutionary culture. This is a common Chinese naming convention. He became Mao Zedong's liaison with the Politburo in Mao Zedong had a total of ten children, [] including:.

Mao's first and second daughters were left to local villagers because it was too dangerous to raise them while fighting the Kuomintang and later the Japanese.

Their youngest daughter born in early in Moscow after Mao separated and one other child born died in infancy. Two English researchers who retraced the entire Long March route in — [] located a woman whom they believe might well be one of the missing children abandoned by Mao to peasants in Through his ten children, Mao became grandfather to twelve grandchildren, many of whom he never knew.

He has many great-grandchildren alive today. One of his granddaughters is businesswoman Kong Dongmei , one of the richest people in China.

Mao's private life was kept very secret at the time of his rule. However, after Mao's death, Li Zhisui , his personal physician, published The Private Life of Chairman Mao , a memoir which mentions some aspects of Mao's private life, such as chain-smoking cigarettes, addiction to powerful sleeping pills and large number of sexual partners.

Having grown up in Hunan , Mao spoke Mandarin with a marked Hunanese accent. Sinologist Stuart Schram emphasised Mao's ruthlessness, but also noted that he showed no sign of taking pleasure in torture or killing in the revolutionary cause.

Levine wrote that Mao was a "man of complex moods", who "tried his best to bring about prosperity and gain international respect" for China, being "neither a saint nor a demon.

Mao had learned some English language, particularly through Zhang Hanzhi , who was his English teacher, interpreter and diplomat who later married Qiao Guanhua , Foreign Minister of China and the head of China's UN delegation.

He first chose to systematically learn English in the s, which was very unusual as the main foreign language first taught in Chinese schools at that time was Russian.

Mao was a prolific writer of political and philosophical literature. A fifth volume, which brought the timeline up to , was briefly issued during the leadership of Hua Guofeng , but subsequently withdrawn from circulation for its perceived ideological errors.

There has never been an official "Complete Works of Mao Zedong" collecting all his known publications. Mao wrote prolifically on political strategy, commentary, and philosophy both before and after he assumed power.

The most influential of these include:. Mao was also a skilled Chinese calligrapher with a highly personal style. In China, Mao was considered a master calligrapher during his lifetime.

There currently exist various competitions specialising in Mao-style calligraphy. As did most Chinese intellectuals of his generation, Mao's education began with Chinese classical literature.

Mao told Edgar Snow in that he had started the study of the Confucian Analects and the Four Books at a village school when he was eight, but that the books he most enjoyed reading were Water Margin , Journey to the West , the Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Dream of the Red Chamber.

Brooding over this immensity, I ask, on this boundless land Who rules over man's destiny? Some of his most well-known poems are Changsha , The Double Ninth Mao has been portrayed in film and television numerous times.

Some notable actors include: Han Shi, the first actor ever to have portrayed Mao, in a drama Dielianhua and later again in a film Cross the Dadu River ; [] Gu Yue , who had portrayed Mao 84 times on screen throughout his year career and had won the Best Actor title at the Hundred Flowers Awards in and ; [] [] Liu Ye , who played a young Mao in The Founding of a Party ; [] Tang Guoqiang , who has frequently portrayed Mao in more recent times, in the films The Long March and The Founding of a Republic , and the television series Huang Yanpei , among others.

The Beatles ' song " Revolution " refers to Mao: " From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Mao disambiguation. Luo Yixiu.

Yang Kaihui. He Zizhen. Jiang Qing. Mao Yichang father Wen Qimei mother. Central institution membership. Other offices held.

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